Summary and Analysis of Recent Media Attacks
In recent months, Iranian media have been conducting an intensive anti-Bahá'í campaign. Since September 2005, the influential, state-run "Kayhan" newspaper ran more than three dozen articles defaming the Bahá'í Faith with the clear intention of arousing in readers feelings of suspicion, distrust and hatred for the Iranian Bahá'í community. The articles engage in a deliberate distortion of history, make use of fake historical documents, and falsely describe Bahá'í moral principles in a manner that would be offensive to Muslims.
Before the onset of previous government campaigns of persecution against Bahá'ís, such as in 1955 and 1979, similarly defamatory articles and radio programs were run against the Bahá'ís, stirring up animosity and prejudice, apparently to prepare the public for what was to come.
"Kayhan" newspaper is one of the official state-run1 daily organs of the ultra-conservative hardliners2 in the Islamic Republic of Iran, with a significantly wide circulation throughout the country. Its managing editor is appointed by Iran's supreme leader, Ayatollah Khamenei.3
The articles in question engage in a deliberate distortion of history. They viciously attack the religion's founders and claim in the face of all historical data that the religion itself was invented and implanted by colonialist and imperialist powers with the purpose of subverting Islam and subjugating Muslim peoples. The authors of the articles stoop to the use of fake historical documents such as the infamous memoirs of a mid-nineteenth century Russian minister in Tehran, Prince Dolgorouki, memoirs that were manufactured in Iran some sixty-eight years ago and have long since been exposed as pure invention.
Unaware of the contradiction involved, the articles state that one of the central figures of the Faith, the Báb, was taught and directed in his allegedly anti-Islamic activities simultaneously by the Jews and the Tsarist government not known ever to have been favourably disposed toward the Jews. The linking of Bahá'ís with Zionism serves the same purpose of provoking suspicion and hatred.
The theological and ethical principles of the Bahá'í Faith are presented in a form no fair student of that Faith could recognize. Here again the intention is to blacken the Faith in the eyes of those who have no independent sources of information and are heavily influenced by hate propaganda.
The defamatory "Kayhan" articles would not merit attention were they not an indicator of growing repression of the Bahá'ís in the Islamic Republic. In the past, public campaigns in the press and in broadcast media have led to acts of violence that included the murder of men, women, and children. [Given the present-day psychological state of some Muslim populations one could expect large-scale violence against the Bahá'ís in Iran and perhaps elsewhere.]
Following please find brief summaries of the above-mentioned "Kayhan" articles as well as their full texts in Persian.
Summaries of "Kayhan" articles on the BahÁ'Í Faith,
30 June 2005–30 January 2006
- "The Contributions of the Bahá'ís?!", 30 June 2005: This article takes the form of a letter from a Mr. Yousef Sobhravan to the Research Office of "Kayhan". The author states that his intent is to challenge two claims made in a letter dated 15 November 2004, which was sent on behalf of the Iranian Bahá'í community to the former president of Iran, Hojjatoleslam Siyyid Mohammad Khatami, seeking redress for the long-standing violations of its human and civil rights. The two claims that the author proposes to challenge are the Bahá'ís' assertion that they have been victimized and their avowal that they are obedient to government as a matter of principle. With respect to the first claim, the author lists a number of Bahá'ís, as well as non-Bahá'ís whom he mistakenly assumes were Bahá'ís (such as Amir Abbas Hoveyda, one of the Iranian prime ministers under the late shah), who, he asserts, had benefited by having served in the cabinet or in other posts under the late shah. Libellous accusations are levelled against particular individuals who, it is alleged, absconded with vast sums of government money; others are apparently guilty, in the eyes of the author, of simply having served the country under the shah. With respect to the second of the two claims, the author does not provide any comment beyond his reference to the claim itself and his intent to challenge it. Rather, the article concludes with an attack on certain fundamental beliefs of the Bahá'ís, such as the oneness of God and the essential oneness of religion.
- "Encountering the Bahá'ís", 27 September 2005: The article opens with an implicit threat, ostensibly against the Bahá'ís, by stating that there are individuals who adopt the path of disloyalty and treachery. These individuals, the article affirms, are warned, and it is hoped they find the right path, repent, and wash themselves of their sins.
- "Understanding the Roots of Bahaism", 27 October 2005: The article attempts to incite public sentiment by raising time-worn, utterly false allegations that the Bábíand Bahá'í Faiths were the creation of colonial powers. "Babism and Bahaism4 are [merely] notions and are among the religious sects that were created by colonialists to corrupt the noble and pure Islamic ideas and to oppose the institution of Marja'iyyat and Rawḥaniyyat [Islamic clerical orders], an institution which has always resisted the dominance of foreigners over the land and the destiny of Muslims in the Islamic society of Iran."
- "The Báb under the Tutelage of the Jews", 29 October 2005: This article flagrantly defames the character of the Báb and clearly attempts to incite anti-Semitic sentiments by including among its allegations against him that he had close ties to Jewish society in Iran and that these ties were the "main foundation of his claim to be 'the Gate of the Promised One'". It cites as its source the so-called memoirs of a Russian, Prince Dolgorouki, a document that has been utterly dismissed by serious historians.
- "Dolgorouki's Influence on the Báb", 30 October 2005: This article, also citing from the foregoing discredited source, once again claims that the Bábí Faith was a creation of Russian imperialism (belying the article published on 29 October, which purports that the Báb was a creation of the Jews in Iran). It also grossly demeans the character of the Báb.
- "The Báb's Letter of Recantation", 31 October 2005 [Note: The "Kayhan" article is mistakenly dated 1 November 2005]: This is yet another attempt to discredit the Báb's and his Faith. Citing completely unfounded statements from unsubstantiated sources, it alleges that he withdrew his claim to be "the Gate of the Promised One", an assertion that is unsupported by any valid historical evidence.
- "The Story of the Báb's Self-Indulgence and Execution", 1 November 2005: This article continues the previous attacks on the Báb, this time by making foul and baseless assertions concerning his moral conduct. The article aims not only to disparage the Báb and his followers, but also maligns as an agent of Tsarist Russia the governor of Isfahan, who had endeavoured to come to the aid of the Báb.
- "The Connection between Bahaism and Zionism", 2 November 2005: In a clear attempt to associate the Bahá'í Faith with any and all of Iran's historical "enemies", this article asserts that England and Russia, though normally vying with each other for control of Iran, collaborated to advance the claims of the Báb, thus, provoking unrest in the country. It further charges, "In 1868, with the transfer of Mirza Husayn-Ali-i-Nuri (Bahá) [Bahá'u'lláh] and his companions to the port of Acre, the connection between the Bahá'ís and powerful Jewish bases in the West continued and the centre of Bahaism in Palestine became an important tool for the Bahá'ís' and their partners' complex activities within the colonialist system of Britain." The fact that Bahá'u'lláh was exiled to Palestine by the Ottoman authorities at the behest of the Persian government and clerical powers in Iran, who were relentless in their efforts to destroy him and his followers, is not acknowledged.
- "The Scandalous Activities of Bahá Caused the Heads of the Sect to Flee", 5 November 2005: The article recounts an unsuccessful attempt by a follower of the Báb on the life of "Naṣiri'd-Din Shah" and falsely claims that Mirza Husayn-Ali-i-Nuri [Bahá'u'lláh] was directly responsible for this plot to assassinate the shah. The article fails to point out Bahá'u'lláh's utter disavowal of this action and the fact that this failed assassination attempt was used to justify the slaughter of some 20,000 Bábís and Bahá'ís at that time. The article portrays Bábís and Bahá'ís as brutal, vicious, and violent and falsely accuses them of having "forbidden the use of force to convert people to their Faith except in the case of the Muslims whose property, life, and honour could be taken with impunity. The Muslims were even tortured and martyred. Of course, viciousness and brutality are amongst the primary characteristics of the members of the Bábí Faith." It also attempts to cast both the shah and the Bahá'ís as puppets of Russia.
- "The Exile of Bahá to Acre and the Birth of Bahaism", 6 November 2005: This article begins by making the wholly unfounded assertion that during the time of the Báb, the Bábís, out of malice and disdain towards the Shiites, celebrated one of their holy days within a month of the year when Muslims commemorate the martyrdom of Imam Ḥusayn. It also suggests that Bahá'u'lláh promoted peaceful activities and forbade his followers to resort to Holy War, only for his own protection.
- "The Claim of Divinity", 7 November 2005: This article once again seeks to discredit the Bahá'í Faith by alleging that its founder was supported by Tsarist Russian officials who, the article claims, saved him from death after the attempted assassination of the Shah. Ignoring the fact that Bahá'u'lláh was exiled to Iraq by the Iranian authorities, it asserts that Russia facilitated his relocation to Baghdad, owing to his senility and lack of knowledge, and directed the promotion of his claims to prophethood by providing him with financial resources and "scripture" which were disseminated in his name. The fact that someone allegedly so close to Bahá'u'lláh as Prince Dolgorouki is quoted as referring to him as "senile" when he was no older than 35 at the time referred to is yet further evidence of the inadmissibility of these alleged "memoirs" as a reliable source. As with several others in the series, this article also attempts to exploit prevailing negative sentiment towards Israel by pointing out that the Qiblih of Bahá'ís is the "tomb" of Bahá'u'lláh in Acre, Israel. Finally, this article takes a number of statements from Bahá'u'lláh wholly out of context, falsely suggesting that he claimed to be the essence of God.
- "Nonsensical Utterances of the Báb", 8 November 2005: This article once again demeans, discredits, and incites enmity towards the Báb by making a number of outrageous charges against him, asserting, for example, that "after claiming to be a prophet, [he] produced writings that were nonsensical and not in accordance with grammatical rules of any religious, philosophical, or scientific value."
- "Fabricated Instructions", 9 November 2005: This article repeats the assertions made that the Báb's writings contain grammatical mistakes and are absurd. It makes a number of highly inflammatory statements such as "In response to the question 'Why does the Bayán [the Báb's Holy Book] invalidate the Quran?' Baha'i leaders and teachers, in general, say, 'Because the Quran has been tampered with [it is not authentic].'"
- "Contradictions in Teachings of Bahaism", 10 November 2005: In derisive language, the article states that there are conflicting teachings in the Bahá'í Faith about such issues as the rights of men and women, the treatment to be accorded followers of other religions, and its vision of the future governance of the world. It also blatantly attempts to rouse repugnance against the Bahá'ís by weaving a fabric of awful lies. It states, for instance, that "in order to beget offspring, it is obligatory upon every follower of the Báb to marry. If one's wife does not become pregnant, however, he is permitted to employ the assistance of his Bábí brothers to this end." The reference given for this quote is not any authoritative Bábí or Bahá'í source, but rather a book filled with abusive allegations.
- "Fabricated Stories", 12 November 2005: The article mocks Bahá'ís by quoting from two individuals, one of whom is known to have attacked the Faith previously, who assert that every Bahá'í is considered able to teach the Faith, regardless of his/her level of learning or education. All that is required is a short period of training "not based on logic or science". The article also alleges that Bahá'ís fabricate accounts when pressured about whether their religious leaders produced miracles.
- "Mr. Hamfir and Wahhabism", 13 November 2005: The article begins by misrepresenting certain statements in the Bábí and Bahá'í writings in order to make the inflammatory suggestion that the Bahá'ís believe the station of the Báb to be higher than that of Muhammad. A non sequitur is then introduced with the insertion of a document titled "How to Destroy Islam", said to be referenced in the memoirs of a man named Mr. Hamfir. The given name of "Mr. Hamfir" is not provided, nor does the article include any background information whatsoever about him beyond alleging that this individual was a British spy and a friend of the founder of the Wahhabi sect of Islam. The book in question, which is said to have been given to Mr. Hamfir by the secretary general of the Ministry of the Colonies, reportedly refers to certain lines of action in the strategy to bring about the demise of Islam, which bear a striking resemblance to time-worn and baseless characterizations of the aims of followers of the Bábí and Bahá'í Faiths. Among these lines of action are "to agitate nationalistic and ethnocentric sentiments among the Muslims"; "to promote drinking alcohol, gambling, adultery, and consumption of pork either in public or in private"; and "to devalue the importance of the clergy in society".
- "The British Handwriting on the Agenda of Bahaism", 14 November 2005: This is a continuation of the foregoing article about the memoirs of Mr. Hamfir. The only mention of the Bahá'í Faith is in a footnote that impugns the Bahá'í community by falsely associating it with the destruction of Islamic holy sites without presenting any evidence to support this allegation: "This policy was enacted by the sect of Bahaism. The family of Saud [royal family of Saudi Arabia], in the name of renovating the area in the vicinity of Masjid al Haram, demolished the houses of Imam 'Alí and Fáṭimih [daughter of the prophet of Islam]." The absurdity of the allegations becomes obvious in the representation of Mr. Hamfir's purported instructions to the founder of Wahhabism as "the Bahá'í agenda".
- "Who Was Abbas Effendi?", 15 November 2005: This article continues with the alleged conversation between Mr. Hamfir and the aforementioned secretary general who supposedly was going to tell him [Mr. Hamfir] about a second secret, the first one being the list of the lines of action on how to destroy Islam; the second secret is referred to as a fifty-page document, which contains further lines of action on the strategy to destroy Islam. However, no reference is given as to where this document is, who wrote it, when it was published, how the author of the "Kayhan" article managed to obtain such a critical document, and why it is not being made available for public scrutiny. Instead, the author freely quotes from this fictitious document underscoring one of the lines of action identified in it for the achievement of the destruction of Islam: the need to create new religions and sects. The implication is that the Bahá'í Faith is one such creation. It then focuses on the person of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, the son of Bahá'u'lláh, maligning him as a spy of Tsarist Russia and a promoter of colonialist ideals. In support of this latter allegation, the article cites the knighthood that was bestowed on 'Abdu'l-Bahá by the British government. This was, in fact, an act of recognition for the actions he took to alleviate the suffering of the inhabitants of Palestine during World War I.
- "Conflicts and Schisms", 16 November 2005: This article focuses on Shoghi Effendi, the head of the Bahá'í Faith from 1921 to 1957, and the events following his passing. It seeks to defame him in the eyes of Iranian readers by portraying him as a person who had a Western education and slanders his character by alleging that he was power hungry and morally corrupt. It falsely asserts that following Shoghi Effendi's passing, a power struggle took place in the Bahá'í community and eventually a large number of Bahá'ís accepted the leadership of his American wife. It then describes the election of the first Universal House of Justice, the international governing body of the Bahá'í Faith, and attempts to vilify this institution by stating that it is based in Israel. It further alleges that during the Pahlavi era, Bahá'ís in Iran used their institutions to interfere in the affairs of the country.
- "The Main Causes of the Derailment of the Constitutionalist [Revolution]", 17 November 2005: This article tries to connect the Bahá'í administrative institutions in Iran to the socio-political climate of Iranian society just prior to the Revolution, claiming that these institutions are ultimately linked to Israel. The article concentrates on the period in the history of the Bahá'í Faith just after the election of the Universal House of Justice [the international governing body of the Bahá'í Faith], falsely characterizing the Bahá'í community as disunited and in crisis. Finally, it asserts that the Iranian people wished for reforms in the government that were Islamic in nature but that specific elements, including the Bábís, derailed this process.
- "Promoter of Terrorism", 19 November 2005: This article describes the activities of the Bahá'ís as subversive and baselessly attempts to link the names Bábí and Bahá'í with terrorism. It goes on to state that the Muslim clerics were the force behind the Constitutional Revolution in Iran (1906–1909) but asserts that this movement was derailed by a group of secular, intellectual Bábís and Bahá'ís, the consequence of whose actions led to the rise of Reza Khan's dictatorship. Furthermore, it alleges: "With the pressure exerted by Westernized intellectuals, especially followers of Babism and Bahaism, constitutionalism took the place of a just Islamic society." The article also seeks to identify Bahá'ís with certain groups that were involved in assassinations and terrorist activities during the Constitutional era—an accusation that is utterly without foundation.
- "Historical Facts about the Punishment Committee", 21 November 2005: This is a continuation of the wholly unfounded depiction of the role the Bahá'ís are purported to have played at the time of the constitutional movement. It claims that during this period, the activities of a group called the "Punishment Committee", most of whose members it says were Bahá'ís, played a significant role in creating a crisis in that country, the result of which was the fall of the Qajar Dynasty and the rise of the Pahlavi dictatorship. The article declares that according to the colonialist politics of Britain, this committee was behind many murders and terrorist activities that facilitated the change of government in Iran. The article states that after the "Punishment Committee" was disbanded, a group called the "Phoenix Committee" released a declaration, which in part reads as follows: "We who are fully cognizant of all the circumstances and secrets will not allow the [Bahá'í] clan to take up posts in the ministerial cabinet because they will then start killing the other ministers until no one but themselves will be willing to shoulder the weight of ministerial office."
- "The Helper of the Zionists", 22 November 2005: This article falsely claims that with the rise to power of Reza Khan Pahlavi [later Reza Shah Pahlavi], the Bahá'ís gained a great deal of freedom, which they used to undermine Islam. It once again repeats the assertions made in previous articles that Tsarist Russia supported the Bahá'ís, but now adds that after the communist revolution, Bahá'ís worked as spies for the KGB. Following the same pattern as in previous articles, these allegations are referenced to publications written by enemies of the Bahá'í Faith whose motives were to entirely undermine its credibility. It also flagrantly seeks yet again to arouse anti-Semitic sentiments by claiming that the Jewish people played a significant role in the beginnings and evolution of the "Babism and Bahaism sects".
- "Intertwined with the Zionists", 23 November 2005: The article continues to link the Bahá'í Faith with the government of Israel and Zionism in a clear play on anti-Semitic sentiments to arouse antipathy towards Bahá'ís. It asserts that the Bahá'ís and their leaders have always insisted on establishing the most cordial relationship with the government of Israel and that the Israeli government has in turn acknowledged "the perverse Bahá'í sect" as one of the officially recognized religions of the land and has allowed the Bahá'ís to develop the "grave sites" of their leaders in Haifa and Acre. The fact that Bahá'ís, as a matter of principle, obey the law of the land in which they reside is used as incontrovertible evidence of their being Zionists and collaborators with the government of Israel, bent upon the destruction of Iran. The article then says that Bahá'ís consider Iran the birthplace of their Faith and do their utmost for its promotion there and that they also promote their Faith in other parts of the world, sometimes at the invitation of colonialist powers whose intent in supporting Bahaism is undoubtedly to create divisions among Muslims. In a further attempt to incite animosity towards Bahá'ís, the article claims that one of the reasons for the success of the Bahá'í Faith is that, in public, Bahá'ís pretend to be Muslims.
- "Warnings of the Imam against the Influence of the Bahá'ís", 24 November 2005: Playing upon patriotic sentiments of Iranians towards Imam Khomeini, the political and spiritual leader of the Iranian revolution, the article quotes a message from Khomeini to the clerics in Yazd, warning them about "the perverse Bahá'í sect": "You must be alert to the fact that many important posts are filled by the [members of] this sect who in reality are agents of Israel. Israel poses an imminent danger to Islam and Iran. A pact with Israel against Islamic governments either has been or will be made. It is imperative for the clerics to inform other strata [of society] so that we can prevent them when the time comes." The article also cites the following ominous statement made by Khomeini in 1962–63: "In accordance with my religious duty, I am warning the people of Iran and the Muslims of the world. The Quran and Islam are in danger. The independence and economy of the country is in the grasp of the Zionists who have appeared in Iran as the Bahá'ís. Before long, owing to this deadly silence by the Muslims, they [the Zionists] will overtake the entire economy of the country with the blessing of their agents [the Bahá'ís]." This article demonstrates that hatred and animosity towards Bahá'ís are not new—these instructions of Ayatollah Khomeini pre-date the Iranian Revolution and the establishment of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
- "Secular Bahaism", 26 November 2005: The article repeats previous allegations that Russia and Britain were the founders of Bahaism and adds that later the United States became an important player in its protection and expansion. It also states that in formulating Bahaism, the enemies of Islam—such as the Zionists—deliberately included elements that are in violation of Muslim teachings, such as removing the clerical order from the fabric of the new Faith, promoting separation of religion and politics, and, as indicated in the following excerpt, using women to advance the Faith's claims: "Considering the effective and key role of women in all sections of the [Bahá'í] community and in its activities in the society, the leaders of the colonialist and perverse sect of Bahaism, from the beginning of the formation of this sect—namely, the time of the Báb—and based on the orders of the centres of Zionist power, use women as the main means of moving people away from the truth and attracting them to their colonialist religion."
- "A Cesspool of Corruption", 29 November 2005: This article clearly attempts to vilify Bahá'ís by grossly defaming the moral teachings of the Bahá'í Faith and the ethical standards upheld by its followers. Among its unfounded claims, quoted from strongly biased sources written by known enemies of the Faith, it purports that Bahá'ís are so morally corrupt that "they can marry all their relatives except their mother. They have used this principle to increase their numbers and seek to make this a worldwide practice." The article notes that such immorality is not surprising from a sect that was created by colonialists such as Britain.
- "Intellectuals' Inverted View of Babism", 30 November 2005: In addition to repeating the claim that the Bahá'í Faith was a creation of colonial powers, it also depicts Bahá'í women merely as a means by which to attract people to the Faith. Any quoted statement sympathetic to the Faith is distorted to imply evidence of a conspiratorial connection to one of the many countries for which the Bahá'ís are said to be spies.
- "The Bahá'í File Will Be Published Soon after the Revolution", 1 December 2005: See note below.
- "Deceiving the Masses to Attract Them", 3 December 2005: See note below.
- "The Story of Aqa Jahan's Open-handedness", 4 December 2005: See note below.
- "The Other Face of Aqa Jahan", 6 December 2005: See note below.
- "Content of the Indictment of the Prosecutor of Yazd against Those Charged with Murder, the Bahá'ís and the Story of a Murder in Abarqú", 25 January 2006.
- "Content of the Indictment of the Prosecutor of Yazd against Those Charged with Murder: Horrible Killing of Several Innocent Muslims by the Bahá'ís", 26 January 2006.
- "Content of the Indictment of the Prosecutor of Yazd against Those Charged with Murder: Three Bahá'í Doctors Instigating the Murders in Abarqú", 28 January 2006.
- "Content of the Indictment of the Prosecutor of Yazd against Those Charged with Murder: The Guilt of the Victims, Slandering the Bahá'ís", 29 January 2006.
- "Content of the Indictment of the Prosecutor of Yazd against Those Charged with Murder, Last Part, This is the Evidence of the Crime of the Bahá'ís", 30 January 2006.
Note: In presenting articles 29 through 37, "Kayhan" claims that its series on the Bahá'í Faith was "warmly embraced by various strata of the people of Iran, who sent many letters and emails to the newspaper's office". It does not, however, provide any evidence to this effect. These nine articles, supposedly representative of the responses received, are actually taken from only two letters to the editor, each presented in instalments, as follows.
The first letter, published in four instalments (29 through 32), is signed by an individual named Sajjad who repeats many of the scurrilous accusations published in the first 28 articles. He also claims to have infiltrated Bahá'í gatherings and to have duped Bahá'ís into divulging information about themselves. Among the matters he alleges to have discovered through these means is that Bahá'ís offer material inducements to convert others to their Faith and that wealthy Bahá'ís hired more Bahá'ís than non-Bahá'ís in their enterprises. He states that the dominance of Bahá'ís in these companies intimidated non-Bahá'ís into participating in Bahá'í teaching activities. The author provides no evidence in support of his allegations. Moreover, with respect to his accusations about the hiring practices of Bahá'í-owned companies, he makes no reference whatever to the fact that hundreds, if not thousands, of Bahá'ís had been deprived by the government of their right to work. That Bahá'ís who were able to provide their unemployed co-religionists with employment did so would hardly seem an indictable offence in any circumstances, let alone these.
Instalments 33 through 37 concern a document that "Kayhan" claims to have received from the officials of a cultural and research foundation, Rayhanatur-Rasool of Yazd, in support of the "Kayhan" articles on the Faith. The document is a purported photocopy of an indictment handed down by the prosecutor of the city of Yazd in a sensational case involving the murder of six members of a Muslim family in the village of Robat near the region of Abarqú, in the year 1328 .
What the article fails to report is that all evidence indicated that three Muslim relatives of the victims had murdered them at the instigation of an influential townsman, Mr. Esfandiar Salari. All the local newspapers pointed to these Muslim relatives in their accounts immediately following the murders. The motive was understood to have been Mr. Salari's grudge against one of these family members, who had prevented his marriage to a wealthy widow.
1. See "Iran Means What It Says", by Michael Rubin in http://www.meforum.org/article/892, a publication of the American Enterprise Institute online.
4. It may be helpful to note that the authors of the articles freely interchange the designations "Bábí" and "Bahá'í", although for all intents and purposes the Bábí community ceased to exist when Bahá'u'lláh made his claim to be the One foretold by the Báb and thereby established the Bahá'í Faith and founded the Bahá'í community.
Here are the full texts of the Kayhan articles in Persian:
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